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What is Parkinson’s Disease (PD)?

Parkinson’s involves the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain, called neurons. Parkinson’s primarily affects neurons in the an area of the brain called the Substantia nigra (the major origin of the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum). Some of these dying neurons produce dopamine, a chemical that sends messages to the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. As PD progresses, the amount of dopamine produced in the brain decreases, leaving a person unable to control movement normally.
PD is the most common movement disorder affecting 1-2 % of the general population over the age of 65 years, and it is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer´s disease (AD) Under the guidance of an expert with this Parkinson Disease Treatment in India, one can take hold on symptoms of this severe disease

Risk Factors of Parkinson’s Disease

Age Gender Head InjuryArea of ResidenceOccupationPesticide ExposureExposure to MetalsSolvents and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)Genetic PredispositionUric acid or urate

Anti-inflammatory drugs

An inverse correlation between cigarette smoking and caffeine intake has been found in case-control studies, the significance of these correlations being however, unclear

Stages of Parkinson’s Disease?

The progression of Parkinson’s disease varies among different individuals. Parkinson’s is chronic and slowly progressive, meaning that symptoms continue and worsen over a period of years. Since this disease develops slowly and gradually, so getting Parkinson Disease Treatment at right time is very necessary. Diagnose rely on the Hoehn and Yahr rating scale to classify the severity of symptoms. The scale is broken into five stages based on disease progression. The main symptoms include: Resting tremor: Most common first symptom, usually asymmetric and most evident in one hand with the arm at rest. Bradykinesia: Difficulty with daily activities such as writing, shaving, using a knife and fork, and opening buttons; decreased blinking, masked facies, slowed chewing and swallowing.Muscle Rigidity: Muscle tone increased in both flexor and extensor muscles providing a constant resistance to passive movements of the joints; stooped posture, anteroflexed head, and flexed knees and elbows.Postural instability: Due to loss of postural reflexes.Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system: Impaired gastrointestinal motility, bladder dysfunction, sialorrhea, excessive head and neck sweating, and orthostatic hypotension.Depression: Mild to moderate depression in 50 % of patients.Cognitive impairment: Mild cognitive decline including impaired visual-spatial perception and attention, slowness in execution of motor tasks, and impaired concentration in most patients; at least 1/3 become demented during the course of the disease.

Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease

There is no standard diagnostic test for Parkinson’s. Researchers are working to develop an accurate “biological marker,” such as a blood test to check for abnormal thyroid hormone levels or liver damage or an imaging scan such as a CT SPECT scan or an MRI) may be used to check for signs of a stroke or brain tumor . To date, the best objective testing for PD consists of specialized brain scanning techniques (PET Scan) that can measure the dopamine system and brain metabolism. But these tests are performed only in specialized imaging centers and can be very expensive.

Treatment and Management of Parkinson’s Disease

Without the proper Parkinson Disease Treatment in India, this disease can lead to severe disorders, So, this treatment is divided into two stages:
Early stage Onset of symptoms, treated with physical therapy and medications (Levodopa, dopamine agonists, etc)
Later stage Usually after having received 5+ years of levodopa treatment.“Wearing-off” and “On/Off” effect develops, other medication in conjunction levodopa is commenced.MAO-B and COMT inhibitors.
Physical Therapy Recommended throughout the life of disorder. Helps maintain and improve mobility and strength.Physical exercise aids in rigidity relief, muscle strength and flexibility, balance, etc. Caution is advised to avoid sudden movements or strenuous activities – fall could result in serious injury.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease

Taking a very different approach in the treatment of PD, Borromei et al. in 1996 showed that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy appeared to be effective in ameliorating many of the behavioral and motor deficits observed in PD patients (2). The objective of this study was to determine whether HBO therapy might enhance the effects of an antiparkinson treatment in a PD patient as an adjunct therapeutic modality.

 

Parkisons Treatment

Counseling
Diagnostic and assessment
Physiotherapy
Pharmacological Intervention
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
SCT Regenerative Medical Intervention (Experimental) & Clinical case studies