Trauma to the brain can cause damage and loss of viable brain tissues. This is referred to as TBI or Traumatic Brain Injury.

TBI is brain damage caused by concussion, pressure or direct projectile injury to the brain tissue.

It may be caused by a variety of reasons

• Vehicular accident

• Severe fall

• Mugging, boxing, sports trauma, murder attempt.

• War injury (bomb blast), gun shot wound, etc.

• Wrongly applied forceps for obstructed delivery.

Injury to brain inside part of skull traumatized

Injury also to brain on opposite side of brain due to soft brain hitting opposite side hard skull cavity due to counter shock.

Central core of injury has dead or near dead brain unlikely to be revived as of today.

Surrounding it is a wide zone of injury, hypoxia, inflammation and function loss: Penumbra.

This penumbra is capable of being revived.


The color code is given as a bar on the left:

White to red: normal

Yellow to green: low blood perfusion

Blue to black: very low blood perfusion or dead unrevivable brain


Dizziness Stupor Coma depending on severity and site of lesions
Loss of function of affected brain:

• Memory, intelligence, socializing skills

• Emotion, behavior, speech, vision

• Sensory loss of one or more types

• Motor loss: both voluntary and involuntary

• Psychological disturbances: anxiety, depression and even criminal tendencies.

History of Trauma

Scales of assessment, as per individual need:

• Glasgow Coma scale

• Modified Ashworth Scale for muscle tone

• Walking time

• Various types of Psychological & Cognitive scales

Brain Scans: CT, MRI, SPECT, PET, etc


Specialized: 3-D CT-SPECT Fusion Scan, DSI, fMRI


Need based life support

Need based drugs like Mannitol, citicholine, steroids, anti-epileptics, muscle relaxants, vasoprotective agents, memantadine, etc.

Rehabilitation esp. Physical, Psychological


Regenerative Therapies

Traumatic Treatment

Diagnostic and assessment
Need based rehabilitation
Pharmacological Intervention
Decompressive craniectomy
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube (PEG)
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
SCT Regenerative Medical Intervention (Experimental) & Clinical case studies