Trauma to the brain can cause damage and loss of viable brain tissues. This is referred to as TBI or Traumatic Brain Injury.
TBI is brain damage caused by concussion, pressure or direct projectile injury to the brain tissue.
It may be caused by a variety of reasons
• Vehicular accident
• Severe fall
• Mugging, boxing, sports trauma, murder attempt.
• War injury (bomb blast), gun shot wound, etc.
• Wrongly applied forceps for obstructed delivery.
Injury to brain inside part of skull traumatized
Injury also to brain on opposite side of brain due to soft brain hitting opposite side hard skull cavity due to counter shock.
Central core of injury has dead or near dead brain unlikely to be revived as of today.
Surrounding it is a wide zone of injury, hypoxia, inflammation and function loss: Penumbra.
This penumbra is capable of being revived.
The color code is given as a bar on the left:
White to red: normal
Yellow to green: low blood perfusion
Blue to black: very low blood perfusion or dead unrevivable brain
Loss of function of affected brain:
• Memory, intelligence, socializing skills
• Emotion, behavior, speech, vision
• Sensory loss of one or more types
• Motor loss: both voluntary and involuntary
• Psychological disturbances: anxiety, depression and even criminal tendencies.
Scales of assessment, as per individual need:
• Glasgow Coma scale
• Modified Ashworth Scale for muscle tone
• Walking time
• Various types of Psychological & Cognitive scales
Brain Scans: CT, MRI, SPECT, PET, etc
Specialized: 3-D CT-SPECT Fusion Scan, DSI, fMRI
Need based drugs like Mannitol, citicholine, steroids, anti-epileptics, muscle relaxants, vasoprotective agents, memantadine, etc.
Rehabilitation esp. Physical, Psychological
Diagnostic and assessment
Need based rehabilitation
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube (PEG)
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
SCT Regenerative Medical Intervention (Experimental) & Clinical case studies